NTLM Authentication using IIS, ISAPI-WSGI and cherrypy

(How’s that for a snappy post title?). This is really an aide-memoire for myself since I always make this kind of thing way more complicated than it needs to be. My mission (whether or not I choose to accept it) is to have a web interface to one of our internal apps which should support transparent browser-based authentication but should fail back gracefully to anonymous access. The app in question is a Helpdesk app and some years ago I wrote a cherrypy-based web interface to it since its own desktop interface is woeful. The cherrypy app’s been running fine for some years, with incremental improvements but I’m trying to push it out to a wider (internal) audience and it could do with the speed and stability boost which a fully-fledged webserver can give it.

The machine it’s running on (via the standard cherrypy server on port 8080) is already running IIS and the pywin32 isapi module, nicely extended by the ISAPI-WSGI project, makes transferring the app fairly plain sailing. But one of the benefits of transferring to IIS was to get as smooth a passthrough authentication as possible. I had been using a fairly crude http basic auth with an authentication check at the server end, but that’s far from ideal. I hoped that by switching to IIS (and given that the official company browser is IE) I could just flick a switch and get the browser’s identity transparently.

Well you can, but I put two stumbling blocks in my own path: when it didn’t work immediately I tried to make it far more complicated than I need have rather than looking for a simple solution; and identity isn’t the same as an access token. So, for my future self trying to remember how to do this, and for anyone else looking for this solution, here’s the easy bit. (I’m assuming you’ve installed some kind of ISAPI-WSGI app, altho’ the same pretty much applies elsewhere).

  • In the IIS MMC snap-in find the isapi-wsgi app you’ve installed. Right-click Properties. [Directory Security] tab. Anonymous access and authentication control [Edit]. Leave [Anonymous Access] ticked. Tick [Integrated Windows Authentication]. [Ok] all the way out.
  • In your WSGI app, look for the REMOTE_USER env var. If it’s set, you’ve got a remote user. If it’s not, call start_response (”401 Unauthorized”, [(”www-authenticate”, “NTLM”)]) and return []

That’s the really brief version, and is based around the IIS 5.1 which comes free with WinXP. IE users need do no more. FF users will probably already know that they need to add the web server to the about:config param with the unmemorable name (it’s got “ntlm” and “trusted-uris” in it). Don’t know if Chrome handles this.

For my purposes, I was using cherrypy so — when I get back to work — all I should have to do is: check cherrypy.request.login which keeps track of incoming REMOTE_USER / LOGIN_USER env vars for me; and do the “401 Unauthorized” dance if I need to possibly by means of a simple pre-request cherrypy tool. The graceful anonymity will be implemented by not displaying and/or allowing certain actions if there is no remote user. Not sure yet whether I need to fail back to basic or digest auth.

The trickier bit — and the bit I haven’t yet solved — is translating the “Authorization:” header which the browser sends into something which I can persuade Windows to use to give me a session token. With the session token, I can determine whether my user’s in certain security groups or not. (I can do something from the username alone by querying AD and that’s my fallback plan). The python-ntlm project looks like it’s done all the spadework here, and especially in the clientserver branch but they also talk about the pywin32 sspi module which I’ve so far managed to avoid having anything to do with.

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